TAG: "Nanotechnology"

New therapy holds promise for restoring vision


It has several advantages over other sight restoration therapies now under investigation.

Benjamin Gaub and John Flannery observing a mouse in a water maze, in which the mouse swims to a platform designated by bright flashing lights. (Photo by Mervi Kuronen)

By Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley

A new genetic therapy not only helped blind mice regain enough light sensitivity to distinguish flashing from non-flashing lights, but also restored light response to the retinas of dogs, setting the stage for future clinical trials of the therapy in humans.

The therapy employs a virus to insert a gene for a common ion channel into normally blind cells of the retina that survive after the light-responsive rod and cone photoreceptor cells die as a result of diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. Photoswitches – chemicals that change shape when hit with light – are then attached to the ion channels to make them open in response to light, activating the retinal cells and restoring light sensitivity.

Afflicting people of all ages, retinitis pigmentosa causes a gradual loss of vision, akin to losing pixels in a digital camera. Sight is lost from the periphery to the center, usually leaving people with the inability to navigate their surroundings. Some 100,000 Americans suffer from this group of inherited retinal diseases.

In a paper appearing online this week in the early edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, scientists who invented the photoswitch therapy and vision researchers at the School of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania (PennVet) report that blind mice regained the ability to navigate a water maze as well as normal mice.

The treatment worked equally well to restore light responses to the degenerated retinas of mice and dogs, indicating that it may be feasible to restore some light sensitivity in blind humans.

“The dog has a retina very similar to ours, much more so than mice, so when you want to bring a visual therapy to the clinic, you want to first show that it works in a large animal model of the disease,” said lead researcher Ehud Isacoff, professor of molecular and cell biology at UC Berkeley. “We’ve now showed that we can deliver the photoswitch and restore light response to the blind retina in the dog as well as in the mouse, and that the treatment has the same sensitivity and speed of response. We can reanimate the dog retina.”

The therapy has several advantages over other sight restoration therapies now under investigation, says vision scientist John Flannery, UC Berkeley professor of vision science and of molecular and cell biology. It uses a virus already approved by the Food and Drug Administration for other genetic therapies in the eye; it delivers an ion channel gene similar to one normally found in humans, unlike others that employ genes from other species; and it can easily be reversed or adjusted by supplying new chemical photoswitches. Dogs with the retinal degeneration provide a key test of the new therapy.

“Our ability to test vision is very, very limited in mice because, even in the healthy state, they are not very visual animals, their behaviors are largely driven by their other senses,” he says. “Dogs have a very sophisticated visual system, and are being used already for testing ophthalmic gene therapy.”

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Vegetable oil ingredient is key to destroying gastric disease bacteria


Therapeutic nanoparticle that contains linolenic acid shows promise.

Liangfang Zhang, UC San Diego

By Heather Buschman, UC San Diego

The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with gastric ulcers and cancer. To combat the infection, researchers at the UC San Diego School of Medicine and Jacobs School of Engineering developed LipoLLA, a therapeutic nanoparticle that contains linolenic acid, a component in vegetable oils. In mice, LipoLLA was safe and more effective against H. pylori infection than standard antibiotic treatments.

The results are published online Nov. 24 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“Current H. pylori treatments are facing a major challenge — antibiotic resistance,” said Liangfang Zhang, Ph.D., professor in the UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center and Department of Nanoengineering. “Our goal was to develop a nanotherapeutic that can tolerate the harsh gastric environment, kill H. pylori and avoid resistance.” Zhang and Marygorret Obonyo, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Moores Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, are co-senior authors of the study.

LipoLLA is a lipid (fat) particle that contains linolenic acid. When LipoLLA encounters H. pylori, it fuses with the bacterial membrane. Then the particle’s linolenic acid payload spills out, disrupting the membrane and killing the bacteria.

Zhang, Obonyo and their team labeled LipoLLA particles with fluorescent markers, fed them to mice and watched as the particles distributed themselves in the stomach lining — and stayed there. After treatment, they measured bacterial load in the stomach and markers of inflammation. Compared to standard antibiotic therapies, LipoLLA was more effective at getting rid of H. pylori. What’s more, LipoLLA was not toxic to the mice and the bacteria did not develop resistance to the therapy.

“This is the first step to verify that we can make this therapeutic nanoparticle and demonstrate that it works to reduce H. pylori colonization. We’re now working to further enhance the particle, making it more stable and more effective,” Zhang said.

Co-authors include Soracha Thamphiwatana and Weiwei Gao, UC San Diego.

This research was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (grant R01DK095168), part of the National Institutes of Health.

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Biochemists build largest synthetic molecular ‘cage’ ever


New nanoscale protein container could lead to synthetic vaccines.

Todd Yeates and Yen-Ting Lai, UCLA

UCLA biochemists have created the largest-ever protein that self-assembles into a molecular “cage.” The research could lead to synthetic vaccines that protect people from the flu, HIV and other diseases.

At a size hundreds of times smaller than a human cell, it also could lead to new methods of delivering pharmaceuticals inside of cells, or to the creation of new nanoscale materials.

The protein assembly, which is shaped like a cube, was constructed from 24 copies of a protein designed in the laboratory of Todd Yeates, a UCLA professor of chemistry and biochemistry. It is porous — more so than any other protein assembly ever created — with large openings that would enable other large protein molecules to enter and exit.

The research was recently published online in the journal Nature Chemistry and will appear in a future print edition.

Yeates, the study’s senior author, has sought to build complex protein structures that self-assemble since he first published research on self-assembling proteins in 2001. In 2012, he and colleagues produced a self-assembling molecular cage made from 12 protein pieces combined perfectly like pieces of a puzzle. Now they have done so with 24 pieces, and they are currently attempting to design a molecular cage with 60 pieces. Building each larger protein presented new scientific challenges, but the bigger sizes could potentially carry more “cargo.”

In principle, these molecular structures should be able to carry cargo that could then be released inside of cells, said Yeates, who is a member of the UCLA–Department of Energy Institute of Genomics and Proteomics and the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA.

Yeates’ research was funded by the National Science Foundation and the UCLA–DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics. The lead author was Yen-Ting Lai, who conducted the research as a UCLA graduate student in Yeates’ laboratory and is now a postdoctoral scholar at Arizona State University.

The molecular cube is probably too porous to serve as a container — for medicine, for example — inside a human body. “But the design principles for making a cage that is more closed would be the same,” Yeates said, adding that there are ways to make the cage less stable when it gets into a cell, so that it would release its cargo, such as a toxin that could kill a cancer cell.

Yeates said that his lab’s method also could lead to the production of synthetic vaccines that would mimic what a cell sees when it’s infected by a virus. The vaccines would provoke a strong response from the body’s immune system and perhaps provide better protection from diseases than traditional vaccines.

Yeates has started a research collaboration with Peter Kwong, chief of the structural biology section at the National Institutes of Health and a national leader in the structural biology of disease viruses. They will conduct research on attaching viral antigens to molecular cages.

Other co-authors of the Nature Chemistry research were Carol Robinson, Eamonn Reading and Arthur Laganowsky of the University of Oxford; Francisco Asturias and Kuang-Lei Tsai of the Scripps Research Institute; and John Tainer and Greg Hura of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

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Bio-inspired bleeding control


Researchers synthesize platelet-like nanoparticles that can do more than clot blood.

The researchers (from left): Aaron Anselmo, Samir Mitragotri, Stefano Menegatti and Sunny Kumar. Not pictured: Douglas Vogus and Todd Squires. (Photo by Sonia Fernandez)

By Sonia Fernandez, UC Santa Barbara

Stanching the free flow of blood from an injury remains a holy grail of clinical medicine. Controlling blood flow is a primary concern and first line of defense for patients and medical staff in many situations, from traumatic injury to illness to surgery. If control is not established within the first few minutes of a hemorrhage, further treatment and healing are impossible.

At UC Santa Barbara, researchers in the Department of Chemical Engineering and at Center for Bioengineering (CBE) have turned to the human body’s own mechanisms for inspiration in dealing with the necessary and complicated process of coagulation. By creating nanoparticles that mimic the shape, flexibility and surface biology of the body’s own platelets, they are able to accelerate natural healing processes while opening the door to therapies and treatments that can be customized to specific patient needs.

“This is a significant milestone in the development of synthetic platelets, as well as in targeted drug delivery,” said Samir Mitragotri, CBE director, who specializes in targeted therapy technologies. Results of the researchers’ findings appear in the current issue of the journal ACS Nano.
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Research on cell biology mystery may reveal root causes of Alzheimer’s


A well-known cellular structure orchestrates how vault nanoparticles naturally form in cells.

In the 1980s, professor Leonard Rome and his then-postdoctoral fellow Nancy Kedersha made a breakthrough in cell biology when they discovered vaults, naturally occurring nanoparticles — of a size measured in nanometers (1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter) — that are composed mostly of proteins and number in the thousands inside every cell of the body.

In the decades since, Rome’s team has discovered how to form vaults in the laboratory using the proteins they consist of. While naturally occurring vaults contain other elements, Rome’s team built empty ones, which eventually enabled them to pursue the idea of inserting drug molecules into vaults. Those could then be put in serum, injected into patients, and directed to specific cells where they release the drugs. Thus, vaults are being developed as a highly accurate drug-delivery system that is being commercialized.

But one question that Rome and his team couldn’t answer was how the natural vaults originally formed inside cells. Now Rome and his collaborators at UCLA’s California NanoSystems Institute appear to have solved that mystery.

In a study published online today (Oct. 30) in the journal ACS Nano, Rome’s team, led by first author and postdoctoral scholar Jan Mrazek, report data that suggests that polyribosomes — small molecular machines that read genetic information and form proteins inside cells — work like 3-D printers to both create and link together proteins and correctly form them into vaults. (Watch a brief animated explanation of how it works.)

“This idea needs some further research and confirmation, but it is a very elegant model and we are convinced that it explains how vaults are formed,” said Rome, who is associate director of the California NanoSystems Institute. “If the model is correct, it reveals something new about cell biology — that this polyribosome that has been known for 50 years has a heretofore unknown function. Namely, it orchestrates the assembly of macromolecular complexes such as vaults, and other structures in a cell that are made of multiple proteins.”

Mrazek said that this possible function of polyribosomes may also provide new understanding of protein aggregation, which is a clumping of deformed proteins that happens in such diseases as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Lou Gehrig’s.

“If a protein is not made correctly, it’s possible that these deformities can alter the guided assembly of macromolecules by the polyribosomes,” Mrazek said. “Once you understand that there is a machine in the cell that directs the formation of these macromolecular complexes, you can see where things might go wrong with that machine. By studying nanotechnology we have revealed something unknown about basic cell biology that might have wider implications.”

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Biosensor technology could allow rapid detection of Ebola virus


Rapid detection of viruses among potential applications of research at UC Santa Cruz.

Ali Yanik, UC Santa Cruz

In 2010, Ahmet Ali Yanik published his first paper on the rapid detection of Ebola virus using new biosensor technology he and colleagues at Boston University had invented. But he found there was little interest at the time in developing the technology further.

“People told me that there wasn’t any profit in it because this disease only affects people in the developing world,” Yanik said.

Now, however, Ebola hemorrhagic fever has captured the attention of first world countries in a big way. The current outbreak in West Africa began spreading out of control just as Yanik was setting up his lab as a new faculty member at UC Santa Cruz, where he is an assistant professor of electrical engineering. Yanik plans to resume his work on virus detection in addition to ongoing projects involving biosensors for other biomedical applications. The current Ebola crisis may subside before his technology can be perfected, since there are still many challenges to overcome, but the need will remain for simple and inexpensive virus detection techniques, he said.

“The truth is that Lassa virus, which is related to Ebola and also causes hemorrhagic fever, infects nearly half a million people every year in Africa and kills more people than Ebola, but it doesn’t make the news. So there has been an ongoing crisis with hemorrhagic fever viruses, and now it’s finally getting some serious attention,” Yanik said.

His goal is to create a low-cost biosensor that can be used to detect specific viruses without the need for skilled operators or expensive equipment. “We need a platform for virus detection that is like the pregnancy tests you can use at home,” Yanik said. “The initial symptoms of hemorrhagic fever are similar to the flu, and you just cannot treat every person with flu symptoms as a potential Ebola-infected patient. It needs to be simple and cheap.”

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Engineers develop prototype of low-cost, disposable lung infection detector


NSF grant supports UC Irvine’s efforts to improve manufacturing process for nanodevices.

Imagine a low-cost, disposable breath analysis device that a person with cystic fibrosis could use at home along with a smartphone to immediately detect a lung infection, much like the device police use to gauge a driver’s blood alcohol level.

Timely knowledge of a lung infection would let people with CF or other inflammatory respiratory conditions seek immediate treatment and thereby prevent life-shortening permanent damage to their already vulnerable airways.

Thanks to a nearly $1.3 million grant from the National Science Foundation, UC Irvine engineers can continue developing this type of nanotechnology device – and potentially many others – using a more wide-scale manufacturing process.

Materials scientist Regina Ragan and electrical engineer Filippo Capolino have created a nano-optical sensor that can detect trace levels of infection in a small sample of breath. They made the sensor in the laboratory but would like to see it become commercially available. In addition to diagnosing medical conditions, the device could be modified to monitor environmental conditions – for instance, identifying harmful airborne agents produced through automotive or chemical industry practices.

Nanotechnologies such as this sensor depend on extremely small, nanometer-scale building blocks. A nanometer is about 100,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. Fabricating on this tiny scale poses huge challenges, since most of the current methods that achieve a high level of precision are too costly and slow to be viable for manufacturing.

“With support from the NSF and input from industry, our goal is to help nanoscale manufacturing processes leave the laboratory – where they’ve been confined – and become usable in widespread commercial applications,” said Ragan, associate professor of chemical engineering & materials science and principal investigator on the project.

This grant highlights the strength of our faculty in both nanosciences and advanced manufacturing,” said Gregory Washington, dean of The Henry Samueli School of Engineering. “The Samueli School is poised to move forward as a force in this area.”

Co-principal investigators are Capolino, associate professor of electrical engineering & computer science; Ozdal Boyraz, associate professor of electrical engineering & computer science; and Marc Madou, Chancellor’s Professor of mechanical & aerospace engineering.

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Scientists engineer antibiotics to catch up in race against drug resistance


Souped-up antibiotics attack cells responsible for making bacteria resistant to new drugs.

We face an urgent global health problem because scientists are not developing new antibiotics as fast as bacteria are developing antibiotic resistance.

But new research from UCLA has made important progress toward solving this problem. An interdisciplinary team of scientists from UCLA’s California NanoSystems Institute has developed a method to re-engineer antibiotics that sharply enhances their activity against certain key bacterial cells, called persisters, that are responsible for making bacteria resistant to new drugs.

Persister cells slow down their metabolism and shut down their mechanisms for taking in molecules, preventing normal antibiotics from getting into them, which is necessary for the drug to kill the bug. After the persister cells survive the initial antibiotic treatment, they pass on their genes as the bacteria reproduce.

Led by Gerard Wong, professor in the UCLA Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Department of Bioengineering, and Andrea Kasko, associate professor of bioengineering, the team has developed a method analogous to taking an ordinary car and adding high-performance parts to make a fast and furious street racer.

“We’re in an unsustainable race with bacteria. They become resistant to our antimicrobials too fast,” Wong said. “It takes upwards of $100 million to develop one antibiotic drug, and bacteria develop resistance to it within two years. It’s a race that we can’t win. This reality brought us to the idea of taking an existing antibiotic and renovating it, giving it a new, complementary antimicrobial ability while preserving its original ability to make a better drug overall.”

The study was published Aug. 18 online in the journal ACS Nano.

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Seeding innovations in brain research


UC Berkeley, UCSF, Berkeley Lab join forces on BRAINseed collaboration.

Michel Maharbiz of electrical engineering and computer science describes a project to probe more deeply into the cerebral cortex. (Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab)

Two state-of-the-art research areas – nanotech and optogenetics – were the dominant theme last Thursday, Sept. 18, as six researchers from UC Berkeley, UC San Francisco and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory sketched out their teams’ bold plans to jump-start new brain research.

The rapid-fire talks kicked off a one-of-a-kind collaboration among the three institutions in which each put up $1.5 million over three years to seed innovative but risky research. Called BRAINseed, the partnership could yield discoveries that accelerate President Barack Obama’s national BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) Initiative and California’s own Cal-BRAIN Initiative.

“It’s clear to everybody that any attempt to understand how the brain works, or ultimately what we might mean by cognition, is so daunting and so large that no one institution could hope to be a stand-alone leader in such an effort,” said Graham Fleming, UC Berkeley vice chancellor for research. “The synergies between UCSF, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and UC Berkeley are very strong, and we complement one another in very effective ways.”

“This tri-partnership is unprecedented in the history of our institutions,” noted Horst Simon, deputy director of Berkeley Lab. “We are putting money down to fund a real collaboration that makes people sit down together and address some of the most challenging questions today.”

“BRAINseed underscores the tremendous power embodied in the institutions in the Bay Area, and the potential for amazing things to happen if we can overcome the geographical separations,” said Keith Yamamoto, UCSF vice chancellor for research.

When Obama announced the federal BRAIN Initiative in April 2013, he allocated $110 million for fiscal year 2014. This funding is already supporting several projects at UC Berkeley. Obama has proposed even more funding in future years “to revolutionize our understanding of the human mind and uncover new ways to treat, prevent, and cure brain disorders like Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia, autism, epilepsy and traumatic brain injury.”

Similarly, Cal-BRAIN — short for California Blueprint for Research to Advance Innovations in Neuroscience — aims to “accelerate the development of brain mapping techniques, including the development of new technologies.” The initial appropriation in this year’s state budget was $2 million.

Both Cal-BRAIN and the national initiative are expected to spur new startups in the area of neurotechnology based on the tools and inventions created in research labs. The innovations developed through these initiatives could have broad applications in disease monitoring beyond the brain and even outside the health care field.

“What we want to do is build a climate of collaboration so that we are stronger competitors in the national brain program and Cal-BRAIN,” Fleming said. “We see BRAINseed as a model for future collaborations (among the three institutions).”

Probing deeper into the brain

The six winning projects of 17 proposals originally submitted focus on new methods of mapping the brain and studying neurons deeper in the brain than ever before.

Fiberless deep brain imaging: Using novel nanocrystals developed by Bruce Cohen at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and biosensing and bioactuating molecules synthesized by Chris Chang and Ehud Isacoff at UC Berkeley, researchers hope to probe cell-to-cell communication deeper in the brain than ever before. The technique takes advantage of the fact that near infrared (NIR) light with its shorter wavelengths penetrates deeper into the brain than does visible light. The nanocrystals from Cohen’s lab absorb the NIR light and convert it into visible light. The visible light can then trigger optogenetic photoswitches that turn neuron receptors on and off, as well as activate biosensors that record the release of neurotransmitters at the synapse. Coupled with techniques developed by Charly Craik and Robert Edwards at UCSF for targeting probes to specific cells, the researchers on this project hope to be able to study cell signaling in the many layers of the cortex.

Integrated nanosystems: Our senses of touch and hearing, as well as our ability to feel pain and detect the position of our body in space, are all made possible by a special class of proteins known as mechanoreceptors. Scientists studying this system in cell culture have traditionally used micropipettes to apply pressure to mechanoreceptors, while microelectrodes record the resulting neural activity. But small as they are, these devices are much too bulky to precisely stimulate single receptors or make accurate neural recordings. A team led by UCSF’s Young-wook Jun is devising a system to overcome these limitations. In the new setup, magnetic nanoparticles controlled by micromagnetic “tweezers” will have the capacity to stimulate individual mechanoreceptors, and high-resolution optical signals emitted by “quantum dots,” developed in the lab of Paul Alivisatos of UC Berkeley and Berkeley Lab, will offer a truer picture of neural activity in sensory neurons. They will collaborate with UCSF’s Yuh Nung Jan.

In vivo optogenetic mechanisms: We think of the action of neurotransmitters as rapid and localized, but the effects of acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain are actually quite diffuse and unfold slowly. The hormone-like characteristics of ACh make it difficult to understand through conventional neurophysiology experiments. As a result, ACh transmission, which plays a role in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases and in addiction, is poorly understood despite decades of study. UC Berkeley’s Richard Kramer has devised a system that enables researchers to use light to switch ACh receptors on and off in animals. Using this system, Kramer and UCSF’s Michael P. Stryker will be able to study how ACh modulates behavior in a wholly new way.

Acousto-optic virtual waveguides: Optogenetics approaches to probe the brain’s grey matter, or cortex, work only as deep as the light can penetrate, typically only a fraction of a millimeter below the surface. UC Berkeley engineers have developed a novel way to channel light deeper – more than a millimeter deep – to probe cell-to-cell signaling. Engineer Michel Maharbiz proposes to use ultrasound to create ‘waveguides’ that can steer light below the surface of the cortex, stimulating photoswitches that enable the study of neurotransmitters. With light-sensitive probes developed at Berkeley Lab and cell-imaging techniques from UCSF, the technology would open new avenues for non-invasive in-vivo imaging and stimulation of local brain areas. Maharbiz’s collaborators are Jim Schuck of Berkeley Lab, Reza Alam of UC Berkeley and Vikaas Singh Sohal of UCSF.

Optical integrators of neuronal activity: One of the greatest challenges in understanding the brain is connecting what happens over large volumes and hundreds of thousands of neurons to the signals transmitted at the individual synapse, the connection between nerve cells where communication takes place. Because calcium is key to neuronal signaling, a team led by Evan Miller, UC Berkeley assistant professor of molecular and cell biology and of chemistry, plans to use probes developed in his lab that ‘remember’ calcium concentration. Along with co-collaborators Pam den Besten and Terumi Kohwi-Shigematsu at UCSF and Berkeley Lab, respectively, Miller plans to investigate neuronal activity in models of disease. They can then correlate this with what happens over a larger volume of the brain. The technique combines “click chemistry” pioneered at UC Berkeley with probes generated in the Department of Chemistry to integrate images over different scales. This technique is a vital first step in developing tools that remember neuronal activity and enable 3D reconstruction of activity across entire brain regions with cellular resolution.

Development of instrumentation and computational methods: Though great progress has been made in mapping the function of the human brain, researchers have been stymied by limitations in both recording devices and the ability to analyze and understand brain signals. UCSF’s Edward F. Chang, M.D., is leading a team that aims to achieve up to a thousandfold increase in the density and electronic sophistication of recording arrays. The vast amount of data collected by these arrays will be stored and analyzed by some of the world’s most powerful computers at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), enabling a new level of understanding of the brain in both health and disease. Chang’s collaborators are Peter Denes and Kristofer Bouchard of Berkeley Lab and Fritz Sommer of UC Berkeley.

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Targeted leukemia treatment shows promise


UC Davis develops unique treatment approach.

Noriko Satake, UC Davis

Noriko Satake, UC Davis pediatric oncologist and researcher, has demonstrated in laboratory studies that a new, targeted treatment for leukemia is effective.

Satake’s research was published Sept. 9 in the British Journal of Haematology.

“We identified a novel molecular target that is important for the growth of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in children,” Satake said. “We developed a unique treatment approach using a drug that blocks the target molecule and kills leukemia cells, a nanoparticle vehicle that carries the drug, and an antibody driver that delivers the nanocomplexes (drug-loaded nanoparticles) to leukemia cells.

“We showed great efficacy of these new drug nanocomplexes on a cell line and on primary leukemia samples,” she added. “We also demonstrated that they had minimal toxicities on normal blood cells.”

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Nanoparticles could provide applications to diagnose, treat cancer


Versatile particles offer wide variety of uses.

Kit Lam and colleagues from UC Davis and other institutions have created dynamic nanoparticles (NPs) that could provide an arsenal of applications to diagnose and treat cancer. Built on an easy-to-make polymer, these particles can be used as contrast agents to light up tumors for MRI and PET scans or deliver chemo and other therapies to destroy tumors. In addition, the particles are biocompatible and have shown no toxicity. The study was published online today (Aug. 26) in Nature Communications.

“These are amazingly useful particles,” noted co-first author Yuanpei Li, a research faculty member in the Lam laboratory. “As a contrast agent, they make tumors easier to see on MRI and other scans. We can also use them as vehicles to deliver chemotherapy directly to tumors; apply light to make the nanoparticles release singlet oxygen (photodynamic therapy) or use a laser to heat them (photothermal therapy) – all proven ways to destroy tumors.”

Jessica Tucker, program director of Drug and Gene Delivery and Devices at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, which is part of the National Institutes of Health, said the approach outlined in the study has the ability to combine both imaging and therapeutic applications in a single platform, which has been difficult to achieve, especially in an organic, and therefore biocompatible, vehicle.

“This is especially valuable in cancer treatment, where targeted treatment to tumor cells and the reduction of lethal effects in normal cells is so critical,” she added.

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Nanoparticles show promise for cancer treatment, possible HIV cure

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Nanoparticles show promise for cancer treatment, possible HIV cure


UCLA-led team engineers vault nanoparticles to create novel drug delivery system.

A multidisciplinary team of scientists from UCLA and Stanford University has used a naturally occurring nanoparticle called a vault to create a novel drug delivery system that could lead to advances in the treatment of cancer and HIV.

The research team was led by Dr. Leonard Rome, associate director of UCLA’s California NanoSystems Institute, and Dr. Jerome Zack, co-director of the UCLA AIDS Institute, both of whom are also members of UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. Co-first authors on the study were Daniel Buehler, a UCLA postdoctoral researcher and Matthew Marsden, adjunct assistant professor in the department of medicine and a member of the AIDS Institute.

Their findings could lead to cancer treatments that are more effective with smaller doses and to therapies that could potentially eradicate the HIV virus.

The paper is the cover story of the Aug. 26 print edition of the journal ACSNano, and it was recently published online.

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