Trial shows that bortezomib provides better outcomes than existing treatments.
Researchers at UC Davis have found that the drug bortezomib effectively treats chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a common and debilitating side effect from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants. The trial showed that bortezomib provides better outcomes than existing treatments and does not impair the immune response against residual cancer cells, or the graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT).
“Bortezomib helped a group of patients who desperately needed a treatment, having failed multiple different therapies,” said UC Davis hematologist and associate professor Mehrdad Abedi, lead author on the paper. “The drug fights chronic graft-versus host disease, and unlike other GVHD therapies such as steroid, cyclosporine or mycophenolate, it treats chronic GVHD without dampening the graft-versus-tumor effect, which can be critically important to help patients avoid relapse. In fact, because bortezomib is an anti-cancer drug, it potentially attacks cancer cells in its own right.”
The trial results were published in October in the journal Blood.
Chronic GVHD strikes patients who have received stem cell transplants from donors, commonly called allogeneic transplants. Although the transplants are close matches, they are not identical, and donor cells can attack the recipient, damaging skin, lungs, kidneys and other organs, which can be life threatening.
Developed by Millennium Pharmaceuticals, bortezomib has been used to treat multiple myeloma, leukemia and lymphoma. The drug also has been studied against acute GVHD, making it a promising option against the chronic version of the disease.
The researchers first studied bortezomib in mice, in which the drug delivered excellent results.
The investigation, in collaboration with William Murphy, professor and acting chair of the Department of Dermatology and a co-senior author, found that bortezomib suppresses the donor immune cells that cause GVHD.